(The English version follows)
大脑是身体中最重要的器官，也是我们了解最少的器官。今天要推荐的 Keep Sharp 非常全面地介绍了如何保持大脑健康，结合上周推荐的 Your Brain at Work，我们可以全面了解大脑如何运作，我们应该如何保持大脑的高效运作。
Keep Sharp 指出可以从五个方面来提高大脑健康：
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The brain is the most important organ in the body, but also the one we know the least about. Today's Keep Sharp is a very comprehensive guide of how to keep your brain healthy. Combined with last week's Your Brain at Work, it gives us a comprehensive understanding of how the brain works and how we should keep it functioning efficiently.
Keep Sharp identifies five ways to improve brain health.
- workout frequently
- eat well
- get enough sleep
- relax regularly
- keep intimate relationships
The most important of these is to workout frequently.
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In order to best take care of your body, you have to first take care of your mind.
As you read this book, always remember this: Cognitive decline is not inevitable.
Stop multitasking. Don’t spend mornings reading emails. Socialize more. Pick up the one specific activity that has long been scientifically proven to directly improve brain health.
No matter how sophisticated artificial intelligence becomes, there will always be some things the human brain can do that no computer can.
But it is important to know that memory is fundamentally a learning process—the result of constantly interpreting and analyzing incoming information.
Construction of a memory is about reassembling different memory “snapshots” or impressions from a lattice-like pattern of cells found throughout the brain.
In other words, your memory is not a single system—it’s comprised of a network of systems, each playing a unique role in creating, storing, and recalling.
When you recall a memory, it is like assembling a giant jigsaw puzzle from a few small pieces to get it started.
It’s a beautiful paradox: In order to remember, we have to forget to some degree.
In fact, observation is essential to original awareness, and it’s not the same as just “seeing.”
By focusing on brain growth and repair rather than telling people they have a fatal condition, he hopes more people will be inspired by the possibility of building bigger, better brains today.
When you put your brain first, everything else health-wise falls into place. The brain is ground zero.
Never say “never.” Even people diagnosed with cognitive decline, Alzheimer’s disease included, can continue to learn new things.
Negative thoughts and constant worrying can promote changes in the brain that are associated with depression and anxiety.
As a primer, here are the five pillars of brain health: Move, Discover, Relax, Nourish, Connect. These five pillars were first described by AARP based on the existing scientific evidence that demonstrated these actions are fundamental to promoting good cognitive function across the lifespan.
Movement can increase your brainpower by helping to increase, repair, and maintain brain cells, and it makes you more productive and more alert throughout the day.
Prevention should start early, but to make it count, you need a strategy.
Fitness could very well be the most important ingredient to living as long as possible, despite all the other risk factors you bear—age and genetics included.
And again, it takes far less exercise than you might imagine: if brisk walking alone can accomplish the job, then there’s your directive. But you have to engage in regular physical exercise at least 150 minutes a week and incorporate interval and strength training into the mix.
A mere 120 seconds each hour can offset the damaging effects that prolonged sitting has on the body.
Unlike fat, which mostly stores calories, muscle is a highly active tissue that burns calories. This helps explain why lean, more muscular people tend to burn more calories at rest than do people with higher proportions of body fat.
Virtually all sleep aids, whether they are prescription or over-the-counter (OTC), will help you fall asleep faster, but they do not allow you to experience sleep as restful as natural sleep.
Sleep performs double-duty: decluttering and taking the garbage out.
If you must, limit napping to thirty minutes in the early afternoon. Longer naps later in the day can disrupt nighttime sleep.
If you have a jar that you are filling with marbles and sand, which do you put in first? The marbles. Then you can allow the sand to fill the spaces in between. This is a key metaphor for planning your day and maximizing your time.
The term superfood has no medical meaning whatsoever.
Watch out for products labeled “diet” or “lite” or “sugar free” because that usually means they are sweetened artificially.
And remember, nearly all the studies that link omega-3 to brain health have largely been done on food sources, not supplements.
Supplements do not take the place of real food, and some can be harmful.
A basic rule is that when you eat right, you shouldn’t need to supplement.
No known dietary supplement improves memory or prevents cognitive decline or dementia—no matter what the manufacturers claim in bold promises that you see on the Internet, in newspaper ads, and on TV.
There are two common approaches to fasting. One is to eat very few calories on certain days, then eat normally the rest of the time. The other involves eating only during certain hours and skipping meals for the rest of each day.
Another strategy that works for me is not keeping meat at home; I consume it only when I’m eating out. This helps me stick to a more plant-based diet low in red meat.
Contrary to reports in the media, we have no good proof that eating organic foods provides any more nutrition than conventionally grown foods.
Engaging socially in a larger group, particularly when centered around some sort of challenging activity, seems to be the most protective.
Try to have at least one trustworthy and reliable confidante to communicate with routinely (e.g., weekly)—someone you can trust and count on.
Dementia also takes a devastating emotional, financial, and physical toll on the families of those who are diagnosed with it.
In all my years of doctoring and reporting, I’ve noted that the people who live better—and longer—are the ones who hold on to hope.
Build your own support network, ask for and accept help, and continually plan for the future, adjusting plans as needed and being okay with uncertainty.
Weekly Book Club 018 - Why We Sleep
Weekly Book Club 017 - Your Brain at Work
Weekly Book Club 016 - How to Decide
Weekly Book Club 015 - The Almanack of Naval Ravikant
Weekly Book Club 014 - Finite and Infinite Games
Weekly Book Club 013 - Born a Crime
Weekly Book Club 012 - Measure What Matters
Weekly Book Club 011 - How Will Your Measure Your Life
Weekly Book Club 010 - Range
Weekly Book Club 009 - The Hard Thing About Hard Things
Weekly Book Club 008 - Talking to Crazy
Weekly Book Club 007 - Indistractable
Weekly Book Club 006 - Thinking in System
Weekly Book Club 005 - The Lean Startup
Weekly Book Club 004 - Let My People Go Surfing
Weekly Book Club 003 - It Doesn't Have to Be Crazy at Work
Weekly Book Club 002 - Writing My Wrongs
Weekly Book Club 001 - Poor Economics
Weekly Book Club 001 - Good Economics for Hard Times
Weekly Book Club 000 - The Motivation Myth